How Many Members Of The Paris Agreement
The UNFCCC, adopted in 1992, is a government-to-government treaty that provides a basis for the global climate effort. The convention, which enjoys almost universal support, was ratified by the United States with the Council and the approval of the Senate. The agreement set a long-term goal (preventing “dangerous human damage to the climate system”), set principles to guide global efforts, and forced all countries to “mitigate” climate change by reducing or avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. The Paris Agreement sets out how countries will implement their UNFCCC commitments after 2020. The Kyoto Protocol, a pioneering environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time nations have agreed on country-by-country emission reduction targets. The protocol, which only came into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for industrialized countries, based on the fact that they are responsible for most of the world`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. Bush argued that the agreement would hurt the U.S. economy because developing countries such as China and India would not be included. In the absence of the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty was limited, as its objectives covered only a small fraction of total global emissions. The countries most affected by the effects of climate change will be low-lying nations, particularly vulnerable to sea level rise, and developing countries that do not have the resources to adapt to changes in temperature and precipitation. But prosperous nations like the United States are also increasingly vulnerable. In fact, millions of Americans – especially children, the elderly and the poor – are already suffering from the wrath of climate change.
Climate scientist and founder of Germany`s New Climate Institute, Niklas Huhne, said Turkey was “reseming” the list of countries that do not yet need to ratify the agreement. These rules of transparency and accountability are similar to those set out in other international agreements. Although the system does not include financial sanctions, the requirements are intended to easily monitor the progress of individual nations and promote a sense of overall group pressure, discouraging any towing of feet among countries that might consider it. Currently, 197 countries – every nation on earth, the last signatory is war-torn Syria – have adopted the Paris Agreement. 179 of them have consolidated their climate proposals with official approval, including, for the time being, the United States. The only major emitters that have yet to formally accede to the agreement are Russia, Turkey and Iran. In terms of employment, the clean energy sector already employs more than 3 million Americans – about 14 times the number of people employed in the coal, gas, oil and other fossil fuel industries – and has the potential to invest more in energy efficiency, renewable energy and grid upgrades to replace aging coal infrastructure. Implementation of the Clean Power Plan alone could create more than half a million jobs by 2030.